1. To monitor the condition of athletes in training, the "pulse-load" schedule was chosen at the time, which has been well studied over the years that it is used in sports medicine. This graph is quite simple:
2. The pulse was chosen, firstly, as the most sensitive indicator of the cardiovascular system for the load:
3. Secondly, the pulse graph clearly showed the difference between a trained and untrained person:
4. Thirdly, it also clearly showed the differences in athletes who are quite close according to the results:
5. The most important indicators of the "pulse-load" graph are visible on it immediately. This is the value of the pulse at rest (A) - the "base pulse", which is lower the higher the level of fitness of the cardiovascular system (C-CC). The angle between the initial segment of the straight line and the ordinate of the pulse, which is the sharper the higher the level of fitness (B). The moment of connection of anaerobic respiration, defined as the "point of deviation" (C). The initial (straight) segment of the graph - the period of one aerobic respiration - is its monopoly. The addition of anaerobic respiration to it is indicated by a "deviation point" with the level of anaerobic respiration = 2 mmol / L., (designated as the "1st anaerobic barrier". But the "2nd anaerobic barrier" = 8 mmol / liter is not determined on the colorless pulse graph. To do this, it is already necessary to measure the amount of oxygen consumed:
6. According to the pulse, the indicator of the athlete's fitness is set, equal to the amount of work with a pulse = 170. It was designated "PWC170". Later, smaller values appeared - "PWC150" and "PWC130" - abbreviations from "Human physical performance" - "Physical Working Capacity":
7. Which led to the appearance of training pulse nomograms by age:
8. And to training nomograms for physiological effect:
9. And for the development of the necessary properties:
10. And for training cycles:
11. For highly qualified athletes, indicating the boundaries of aerobic and anaerobic zones:
12. And, since each athlete needs to know exactly the anaerobic reserves of his myocardium as the foundation of athletic achievements, the following graph became the pinnacle of research for runners:
13. Where "pulse-load" is presented as an integrated indicator in sports. More than 95% of all training methods in sports are associated with it because every athlete is always interested in 2 indicators: these are the anti-ischemic reserves of his myocardium and his personal anaerobic capabilities. However, it is impossible to find out directly either by pulse or by ECG until the appearance of a color chart, where their boundaries are clearly defined. Neither in medicine, nor in sports, there is no other method to find out this directly. Therefore, it was necessary to recognize them indirectly – by oxygen absorption and by pulse. But the pulse has a double regulation: cardiac and intracardiac, which is handled by cardiologists, and supra-cardiac – the autonomic nervous system, which is handled by neurologists. The appearance of a color chart greatly simplified and optimized the training process.
The use of two different diagnostic techniques: in the clinic - "ECG", in sports - the "pulse-load" schedule, led to the emergence of two different not only "medicine" - clinical and sports, but even two cardiology. Moreover, they are so different that sometimes it seems that they are no longer dealing with different people, but with different breeds of people, this is how it manifests itself in everything, starting with bicycle ergometry. If for the examination of healthy, especially athletes, loads are put in increments of 50 watts and pedals are pedaled up to 350 watts and above, then in the clinic patients are put in a step of 25 watts and they rarely turn up to 150. And, even with such gentle loads, 30% of them do not finish even such bicycle ergometry. Either HELL rises, or the pulse jumps sharply, unpleasant sensations appear, etc. up to rhythm disturbances and blockages. That is, there is no question of any "single standard" in this technique yet...
this also applies to ECG.
Before working with athletes, the author had clinical practice, so he was amazed when faced with the method of training wrestlers of "freestyle wrestlers" in the national team of Soviet Belarus, where the Doctor of Physical Sciences, Prof. A.I. Zavyalov, who invented it, drove wrestlers into myocardial ischemia. He gave loads causing ECG depression of the ST segment >2 mm. - deliberately driving them into coronary insufficiency. The author spent a lot of time discussing this technique and his model of blood circulation with him, but did not understand what prompted him to do this, since A.I. Zavyalov had no medical education - he was a teacher whose wrestlers took medals at the Olympics in Seoul (in 1988)...
The episode when Bill Clinton, known for his commitment to a healthy lifestyle, had a heart attack after running in the morning for many years also made me think about training regimes. Today, it is already clear to many, even to doctors, that coronary heart disease and IM are different diseases, which have different etiology and pathogenesis. And there is no "running from MI", while a person can be protected from coronary heart disease by properly selected individual physical activities. Because, by itself, even regular running does not yet protect the cardiovascular system. Moreover, cases of deaths during sports competitions have even become more frequent recently:children are dying in physical education classes and athletes at competitions. A lot of deaths are carried away by a marathon and even a half-marathon - it is quite possible that here a person has already come very close to his physical limit. In this connection, the author suggested that marathon runners switch to "kinematic running along Ivanov", as more gentle and energetically rational in running long and super-long distances. A special place is occupied by "training" or "wellness" running. Which should be dealt with in more detail using the coronary blood flow chart. Because the cause of coronary heart disease, very likely, is the daily insufficient workload of the coronary bed. So, if you look at the graph of coronary blood flow:
That is, it is clearly visible that the full disclosure of all capillaries of the coronary bed lies in the region of 95-100% of the maximum load. That is, in order to maintain the full capillary bed of your heart in its normal state, a person should run not long distances, from which there will be no sense (they are useful for the formation of an anaerobic reserve), but segments. Yes, but how?! With all the maximum speed that he is currently capable of, but only until deep shortness of breath occurs. After that, he must stop and wait standing until his normal breathing is fully restored. After that, he can already run and the next one is exactly the same, a segment. And, if each subsequent segment of it is larger than the previous one, then the load is selected correctly by him, if less, then it is excessive for him. Healthy people of working age can start with 3-5 segments, gradually adding 1-2 segments, from class to class, for older categories - like children and adolescents - these loads should be selected only according to the color chart. This is ideal...
This condition is fundamentally important for children and adolescents. Since in any physical education dispensary, you can make sure that all young athletes, starting with the CMC, have developed a heart pathology. Almost always, this is a pronounced hypertrophy of the left ventricle - this is at least, and often there are already various rhythm disturbances. Which is understandable - after the selection of "promising" coaches very often give them competitive loads right away. And, almost always, they exceed the maximum individual. And even significantly. Hence the statistically proven decrease in the life expectancy of professional athletes by 8 years or more. On the other hand, physical activity is less than that for adults - like "jogging", etc., are absolutely useless for health. And they, moreover, cannot protect against myocardial infarction (MI) - in old age, blood clotting indicators already play a more important role.
A color chart is highly desirable as a guide for organizing training for adults, and for young athletes it should already become legally mandatory :
Only according to it, the doctor and the trainer can determine which loads (from w2 to w3 - the yellow zone) will be "adaptive" for this child, since only they can be used as initial in children and untrained adults. For athletes and trained people, loads can be selected already in the "orange zone", and for athletes of higher qualifications in the pre-competition period - and from the "red". Which fits in with the training methodology "for ST depression on ECG" and Prof. A.I.Zavyalov. Who, first of all, would like to know the catamnesis..
Recently, there have been a lot of strictly scientifically based data (Korea, China) that professional athletes live, on average, 8 years less than people who do not play sports at all. And, it seems very likely that it is the fault of the children's coaches, when after the selection of "promising", they unreasonably early give children competitive (!) loads. How often they are given both to identify "promising" and to get rid of the "ballast". Hence the picture that doctors observe in physical education dispensaries. And until the color chart puts an end to this lawlessness, an invitation to sports can be compared to an invitation to "wrap yourself in a sheet and crawl to the cemetery" ...
But this process is also very difficult because it will inevitably meet resistance from "jocks" who founded the business on their methods as "consultants" at gyms. When, (back in the 80s!) in Krasnoyarsk, the first computer complex for individual selection of loads was installed in the gym, then its short life was due precisely to the fact that the "consultants" saw in it not an assistant, but a competitor...